Osteoporosis is majorly of two types1
- Primary osteoporosis is often associated with age and sex hormone deficiency.
- Age-related osteoporosis results from the continuous deterioration of the trabeculae (small, often microscopic, tissue element in the form of a small beam, strut or rod that supports or anchors a framework of parts within a body or organ) in bone.
Secondary osteoporosis is caused by several comorbid diseases and/or medications. Several diseases in osteoporosis often involve mechanisms related to the imbalance of calcium, vitamin D and sex hormones.
Also many inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain and damage throughout your body) may require on long-term glucocorticoid therapy and may have been associated with secondary osteoporosis.
Glucocorticoids sometimes are considered the most common medications linked to drug-induced osteoporosis since BMD (Bone mineral density) may decline after initiation of glucocorticoid therapy.
Causes of secondary osteoporosis may differ between genders.
- Excessive alcohol use
- Glucocorticoid use
- Hypogonadism (occurs when your sex glands produce little or no sex hormones)
- Hypercalciuria (excess calcium in the urine)
- Malabsorption of calcium, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which one or more parathyroid glands become overactive and secrete extra parathyroid hormone (PTH) which might increase calcium in the blood)
- Vitamin D deficiency, hyperthyroidism (when thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine which may leads unintentional weight loss or rapid or irregular heartbeat)
- Cushing’s disease (excess of steroid hormone cortisol in blood level caused by pituitary tumor)
- Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (low to moderate levels of calcium in urine & high levels of calcium in the blood)
- P T. 2018 Feb; 43(2): 92–104.